As the team moves through the stages of development, performance and productivity increase. During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed "Situational Leadership Theory." Therefore, this theory is also known as the life-cycle theory of leadership. Taken together, these studies fail to support the basic recommendations suggested by the situational leadership model. Blanchard, on the other hand, believes that this style should be used for D1 followers who are highly ‘Enthousiastic Beginners‘. As followers gain experience they reach development level 2 (D2) and gain some competence, but their commitment drops because the task may be more complex than the follower had originally perceived at the start of the task. The problem, however, is that they are unwilling to do so. Stage two, Storming, is characterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues and how best to approach the task. A leader’s relationship with followers is therefore likely to go through different stages as these abilities and willingness can change over time. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. Hersey and Blanchard characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of task behavior and relationship behavior that the leader provides to their followers. Malcolm Knowles' research in the area of adult learning theory and individual development stages, where he asserted that learning and growth are based on changes in self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, and orientation to learning. Despite its intuitive appeal, several studies do not support the prescriptions offered by situational leadership theory. Your email address will not be published. S-2 Selling 3. The leader will therefore only encourage and offer feedback when needed to motivate and develop the subordinate, but not as a comment on the task performance. Levels of Strategy: Corporate, Business and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership, How to Solve a Profitability Case Interview, How to Solve a Market Entry Case Interview, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leader-Situation Matches, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership: Matching the Leader to the Situation, Three Levels of Strategy: Corporate Strategy, Business Strategy and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: Adapting the Leadership Style to the Follower, Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid: A Behavioural Approach towards Management and Leadership, Crossing the Chasm in the Technology Adoption Life Cycle, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Make the Competition Irrelevant. Situational Leadership Theory. Individuals lack the specific skills required for the job in hand and they are willing to work at the task. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: Adapting the Leadership Style to the Follower The Hersey-Blanchard Model is also referred to as the Situational Leadership Model or Theory. This is because the leader believes that the follower is capable enough of achieving the required tasks largely independently. Situational Leadership Model - Hersey and Blanchard Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard first published their Situational Leadership® Model in their 1982 book, Management of Organizational Behaviour: Utilizing Human Resources . Maturity and competence of the group are often overlooked factors in good leadership and it helps to focus on these. For these type of followers it is thus important as a leader to keep observing and monitoring them (albeit to a far lesser degree), in order to provide the necessary support if needed. Figure 1: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Styles. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory is one that is based around variable leadership, depending on a variety of circumstances. They can do so by finding the right balance between Directive and Supportive behaviour. In this model, leaders are flexible according to the needs of their subordinates and the demands of the situation. [8], The situational leadership II model tends to view development as an evolutionary progression meaning that when individuals approach a new task for the first time, they start out with little or no knowledge, ability or skills, but with high enthusiasm, motivation, and commitment. Situational Leadership Theory, or the Situational Leadership Model, is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, developed while working on Management of Organizational Behavior. This includes aspects such as their motivation, drive, energy and confidence in their own ability. [4], In 1985 Blanchard introduced situational leadership II (SLII) in the book A Situational Approach to Managing People. [2] During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed "Situational Leadership Theory. In the opposite direction on the horizontal axis the directive behavior from low to high is indicated. This follower style is often seen with new employees who are keen to impress their supervisor, but still lack the work experience to be productive right from the start. Lacoursiere's research in the 1980s synthesized the findings from 238 groups. The reason behind this choice is that Blanchard views this follower style as the second stage in a follower’s evolutionary development. Hersey and Blanchard continued to iterate on the original theory until 1977 when they mutually agreed to run their respective companies. In a replication study using University employees, Fernandez and Vecchio (1997)[9] found similar results. The term “situational leadership” is most commonly derived from and connected with Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory. The theory was first introduced as ‘life cycle theory of leadership’ (Blanchard & Hersey 1996) and later renamed to situational leadership theory’ (1972). The Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory suggests that there is a fifth type of leader: one that can adapt their style based on the situation that they encounter. ! The theory identifies four main leadership approaches: 1. They already have the motivation to do the tasks required, which lowers the need for supportive behaviour. [1] The theory was first introduced in 1969 as "life cycle theory of leadership". History of Situational Leadership® In 1969, Blanchard and Hersey developed Situational Leadership® Theory in their classic book Management of Organizational Behavior. width="25%" align="center" | S4. "[6] According to Hersey's book,[6] a leader's high, realistic expectation causes high performance of followers; a leader's low expectations lead to low performance of followers. Situational management theory was developed over several stages. Instead, it all depends on the situation at hand and which type of leadership and strategies are best-suited to the task. In The Art of Strategy we learned the importance of fully understanding a situation before even considering action. This is very much a ‘hands-off approach’ as the subordinate is perfectly able and willing to perform the tasks independently and with great responsibility. Hersey (2008) situational leadership theory. An important note about Hersey and Blanchard to start with! The leader’s style should therefore be concerned with increasing the confidence and skills of followers so that they can ultimately take on more responsibility for their actions. In the late 1970s/early 1980s, Hersey and Blanchard both developed their own slightly divergent versions of the Situational Leadership Theory: the Situational Leadership Model (Hersey) and the Situational Leadership II model (Blanchard et al.). Blanchard, however, believes this style is necessary for D2 followers, who used to be highly enthousiastic in the beginning but who lost confidence because their competences are failing them. Tuckman found that when individuals are new to the team or task they are motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. In the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, there are four different leadership styles paired with four levels of an employee’s Performance Readiness® or maturity. And we briefly introduced the Hersey and Blanchard model of Situational Leadership, which is about adapting leadership style according to situation. And where Hersey used ‘Telling’, ‘Selling’ and ‘Participating’, Blanchard used the words ‘Directing‘, ‘Coaching‘ and ‘Supporting‘ respectively. Effective leadership is task-relevant, and the most successful leaders are those who adapt their leadership style to the performance readiness (ability and willingness) of the individual or group they are attempting to lead or influence. Typical behaviour for a S1 leadership style, according to Hersey, is offering step-by-step instructions, clear explanation of the consequences of non-performance and close supervision. Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is being influenced, but it also depends on the task, job, or function that needs to be accomplished.[3]. A leader’s supportive behaviour reflects the ‘concern for people‘ dimension of Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid. Blanchard decided to call his version of the model The Situational Leadership II Model (or SLII Model). Yet, where contingency theory focuses on matching leadership style with the situation as such, situational leadership theory places a specific focus on matching leadership style with follower requirements. Until Lacoursiere's work in 1980, most research had studied non-work groups; Lacoursiere's work validated the findings produced by Tuckman in regard to the five stages of group development. These ‘Disillusioned Learners‘ therefore need a leader with a higher concern for supportive behaviour that helps them gain confidence and become motivated again. A follower’s or subordinate’s Task Readiness covers their ability to deliver what has been asked of them. Situational leadership is related to contingency theory therein they both view success as a result of matching leadership abilities and style with the situation. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard designed these four styles of situational leadership on the basis of a parabola. The four leadership styles that are presented in this theory are Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating. Based on these different follower styles, leaders should adapt their leadership style in such a way that it meets the needs of their subordinates. They propose that different leadership styles be employed depending on the situation, as defined by both the orientation of the manager (either task or relations focussed) and the maturity (or experience) of the employee. [4], The situational leadership II (SLII) model acknowledged the existing research of the situational leadership theory and revised the concepts based on feedback from clients, practicing managers, and the work of several leading researchers in the field of group development. The theory has simple scales that a leader can use to give a “thumb in the wind” assessment of what leadership style to use. This theory was first called the “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership.” During the mid-1970s, it was renamed the Situational Leadership® Theory. This article will go into the four leadership styles (Telling, Selling, Participating and Delegating) Hersey and Blanchard came up with in order to better deal with these different stages of followers. Life cycle theory of leadership. The Situational Leadership Model has two fundamental concepts: leadership style and the individual or group's performance readiness level, also referred to as maturity level or development level. Key Takeaways The Hersey-Blanchard Model suggests no leadership style is better than another. Kanfer and Ackerman's study of motivation and cognitive abilities and the difference between commitment and confidence, task knowledge and transferable skills. Question 38 Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory differs from other leadership theories most clearly because it: focuses on favoritism, uses the leadership dimensions of task and relationship behaviors. The fundamental underpinning of the situational leadership theory is that there is no single "best" style of leadership. The S1 leadership style in the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model puts a high emphasis on directive behaviour and a low emphasis on supportive behaviour. A leader’s primary concern lays with the task delivery and less with the personal needs of the subordinates. That allows for fires to be put out and morale to be salvaged, but it also creates issues where personal development can be stalled. As reaction to behavioural leadership approaches such as Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Hersey and Blanchard developed a theory (Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory) that suggests that the most effective leadership style is affected by the circumstances leaders find themselves in. Situational Leadership emerged as one of a related group of two-factor theories of leadership, many of which originated in research done at Ohio State University in the 1960s. In such a situation, it is important that the task is clearly defined and the stages of the process are easy to follow. Your email address will not be published. They are novice but enthusiastic. In 1979, Ken Blanchard founded Blanchard Training & Development, Inc., (later The Ken Blanchard Companies) together with his wife Margie Blanchard and a board of founding associates. Related leadership models include Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid and Reddin's 3D Theory. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory 1. Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K.H. Finally, the individual moves to development level 4 where competence and commitment are high. These two-factor theories hold that possibilities in leadership style are composed of combinations of two main variables: task behavior and relationship behavior. Hersey and Blanchard disagreed with academics like Blake and Mouton on the notion that there would be a single best ‘one-size-fits-all’ leadership approach that could be used within organizations. width="25%" align="center" | S2 Blanchard postulates that Enthusiastic Beginners (D1) need a directing leadership style while Disillusioned Learners (D2) require a coaching style. For this, Blanchard used the term Commitment (meaning: confidence and motivation) instead of Hersey’s term Willingness. Lastly, we have the R4 followers: they are ready, able and willing to perform. The appropriate level of directive behaviour that leaders will have to choose depends on the readiness or development level of followers. Tuckman felt that in the initial stage (forming) supervisors of the team need to be directive. In chronological order, the leadership styles rank from least ready (requiring the most amount of direction and support) to most ready (requiring the least amount of direction and support). This means that the management strategies and decisions a business leader makes, as well as his or her personal style of leadership, … This leadership style may also be referred to as "Situational Leadership Theory" or the "Situational Leadership Model" and was originated by Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey during the development of the book, Management of Organizational Behavior. In their original theory, Blanchard and Hersey (1977) distinguished different styles of leadership and several maturity levels. Hersey, P. (1985). Moreover, they are either unwilling to deliver the required task or lack self-confidence. Effective leaders need to be flexible, and must adapt themselves according to the situation. The next leadership style is the high directive and high supportive S2 leadership style. Over time, this group made changes to the concepts of the original situational leadership theory in several key areas, which included the research base, the leadership style labels, and the individual's development level continuum. SocialMettle talks about this concept in detail, its criticism, along with a few everyday examples. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, Follower’s Psychological Readiness (Psychological Development), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window). Pro’s The simplicity of the theory makes it easy to apply. A follower with a R1-status is unable to complete the required task, because they do not possess the necessary set of skills to perform well. Tuckman's later work identified a fifth stage of development called "termination". This means that followers are experienced at the required task and comfortable with their own ability to do it well and independently. Various terms are used to describe these two concepts, such as initiating structure or direction for task behavior and consideration or socioemotional support for relationship behavior. Blanchard preferred to use the word Development instead of Readiness as followers are likely to ‘grow’ in their abilities throughout time. As the individual gains experience and is appropriately supported and directed by their leader they reach development level 2 and gain some competence, but their commitment drops because the task may be more complex than the individual had originally perceived when they began the task. (1969). Situational leadership is based more on meeting an exact need, at the moment, then an approach which looks toward the long-term needs of a team. These behaviors serve as resistance to group influence and task requirements and can cause performance to drop. Ansoff Matrix: How to Grow Your Business? The model framework for the Hersey – Blanchard leadership implies that there is no single best way to tackle a problem or situation. [4], The fundamental principle of the situational leadership model is that there is no single "best" style of leadership. Required fields are marked *. The horizontal axis the level of maturity (independence of the employee) is indicated in the gradation high to low. Cycle Theory of Leadership,”1 and it was authored by Drs. Figure 2 shows the two different version next to each other. With the direction and support of their leader, the individual moves to development level 3 where competence can still be variable—fluctuating between moderate to high knowledge, ability and transferable skills and variable commitment as they continue to gain mastery of the task or role. Hersey and Blanchard's model is considered as part of the larger Situational and Contingency Theories of Leadership of which Fiedler's Contingency Mo… To Hersey and Blanchard, there leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number combination: 1. The idea behind situational leadership is that you, the leader, should change your leadership approach to be more or less directive, and more or less supportive, based on the situation.. And the situation means whether your direct report (i.e., team member) is a competent and committed superstar, or on the other end of the scale, an incompetent … The leader can further encourage autonomy, while keeping an eye on not overloading the follower with responsibility and not withdrawing completely from the follower’s proximity. This means to what extent a leader puts emphasis on building and maintaining a good relationship with subordinates by paying attention to the security, well-being and personal needs of the employees. The leader makes decisions and tells employees what to do. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. By understanding, recognizing and adapting to these factors, leaders will be able to influence their surroundings and followers much more successfully than if these factors are ignored. In some situations, they may need to have a telling style. "Telling" behavior simply is a unidirectional flow of information from the lea… Looking into a learning framework like blended learning one is not confronted with leadership styles, but rather with teaching or learning styles as described by A R2 follower is just like a R1 follower unable to perform a certain task, but in contrast to a R1 follower, willing to try anyway. The Hersey–Blanchard situational leadership theory identified four levels of maturity M1 through M4: Maturity levels are also task-specific. Telling:Directive and authoritative approach. Selling:The leader is still the d… ! Susan Wheelan's 10-year study, published in 1990 and titled, D1 – Enthusiastic Beginner: Low competence with high commitment, D2 – Disillusioned Learner: Low/middling competence with low commitment, D3 – Capable but Cautious Performer: High competence with low/variable commitment, D4 – Self-reliant Achiever: High competence with high commitment, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 07:06. In the late 1970s, Hersey changed the name from "situational leadership theory" to "situational leadership". In addition, the leader puts a high level of trust in the follower to achieve the day-to-day tasks as the follower’s competence has also grown over time. Learned the importance of fully understanding a situation, it all depends on the characteristics of followers and... With followers is Therefore likely to ‘ grow ’ in their own ability directive and supportive behaviour best. Horizontal axis the directive behaviour determined by the Readiness or development level of behaviour. 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