Propagation suppliers. Celastraceae, Genus Growth rate: Slow Everything You Need To Know About All Things Palm Trees. It explains that multiple factors affecting tree growth seem to influence different species in different ways, with for example sycamore trees showing overall the fastest growth in Peterborough but birch trees showing the slowest. Scientific name: Hyophorbe verschaffeltii or Hyophorbe verschafeltii. Common names: It is also known as Palmiste Marron Palm. Longevity 40 to 150 years. The spindle palm is a true palm that may grow up to 25 feet in full sun conditions. Add to Wishlist Add to Compare. Hedging & Screens Low Maintenance Any ordinary soil, sun or partial shade. Foliage: Its spirally arranged leaves have long stalks that are swollen at both ends. RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. Tree Height. Join the RHS today and support our charitable work, Keep track of your plants with reminders & care tips – all to help you grow successfully, For the latest on RHS Shows in 2020 and 2021, read more, RHS members get free access to RHS Gardens, Free entry to RHS members at selected times », Reduced prices on RHS Garden courses and workshops, Our Garden Centres and online shops are packed with unique and thoughtful gifts and decorations to make your Christmas sparkle, General enquiries Growth Rate: 24 Inches per Year. Added to Cart Add to Cart Favourite Favourite Add to Collection Compare Print Download Email Share Tweet. the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9, Other common names yellow to yellow-green to a reddish-purple fall color; leafs out early; Flowers. The fruit were separated into 10 growth categories: 0% to 9%, 10% to 19%, 20% to 29%, …91% to 100% of the fastest growing. Buds and twigs are angular and green. The trunk is light gray and swells midpoint, narrowing again into a slim, smooth green crown shaft from which leaves emerge. A mature spindle tree is likely to grow to nine metres in height, and will often live for more than 100 years. Growth Rate: Slow Salt Tolerance: High Drought Tol. Wide Range of Native Trees in Stock When planted within the USDA hardiness zones 9 – 11, will grow at the rate of about 2-feet per year. Queen Palm. This palm tree will make a great addition to any home office or landscape. Leaves Oval, Green, Red or Purple or Bronze, Deciduous. . Description of Spindle Palm Tree. Results therefore indicate a substantial variation in the mean annual growth rates across different cities. It is a deciduous, suckering shrub, 4 to 6 feet high. The Spindle is beneficial to pollinators (not so much bees) and birds such as robins and house sparrow. Flowers are followed by orange oval fruit, around 1 inch long. See Julie Walton Shaver growth rate chart and pictures of her October Glory Red Maple tree from 1999 to 2006. Some of the more common species are described here. Flowers are followed by orange oval fruit, around 1 inch long. 2.5-4 metres, Time to ultimate height Growth rate: Slow The bark and twigs are deep green, becoming darker with age, and have light brown, corky markings. The leaves are green, oval and slender. Light Req: It prefers full sun but can also grow in a light shade. Grows to a max height of 4m tall. spindle spindle tree, ananbeam cat tree catwood common spindle tree dogwood gatten tree gatter tree louseberry tree pegwood prick timber prickwood skewerwood, Synonyms Tree Characteristics. It is not used as commonly as other oak species, but would be valuable as a parkway tree. Sun Preference Full sun and partial shade are best for this tree, meaning it prefers a minimum of four hours of direct, unfiltered sunlight each day. Divided into 3 groups these lists, linked below, are maintained by a team of RHS staff and are reviewed annually. . The common name, spindle tree, arose because the wood of this shrub was often used to make spindles for spinning wool. It grows 12 to 30 feet tall and spreads 10 to 25 feet. Growth: Medium — Between 12 and 24 inches of growth per year. Average Cost Of Fully-Grown Palm Trees & Growth Rates. The greenish-purple flowers are a third of an inc… Any ordinary soil, sun or partial shade. Virtually all of the features of the old searches are still available and in addition we have added several new features to create a more comprehensive and user friendly search experience. E. europaeus is a spreading deciduous shrub to 3m, with narrowly ovate leaves turning yellow or red in autumn, and panicles of small yellow flowers followed by 4-lobed red fruits which split to reveal orange seeds, Plant range This plant is ideal for small gardens and rockeries. Then the Spindle Palm Tree ends with beautiful v-shaped leaves that are 8-10 feet in length. Cultivation EUROPEAN SPINDLE TREE, EUROPEAN EUONYMUS. The Spindle Palm Tree, or the Hyophorbe verschaffeltii, is the perfect indoor and outdoor palm to add a bit of tropical flavor to your home. : Moderate Typical Height: 10-20′ OA. This tree grows at a medium to fast rate, with height increases of anywhere from 13" to more than 24" per year. Water Req: Like most palms, it grows best in moist well drained soil. : Moderate Typical Height: 10-20′ OA. Foliage: This small shrub grows with small, dark green leaves. During May and June, Spindle hedging begins to flower. Regular Price: US $199.95 . As low as: US $149.95 . Foliage: This small shrub grows with small, dark green leaves. Uses in landscape design: This hardy Euonymus forms a dense little shrub. 'Green Rocket' has small, glossy, dark green leathery oval leaves. The crownshaft is bright green, waxy, topped with a crown of 6-11 arching fronds which turn outward and down at the end, forming a ‘V’ shape. Also known as common spindle tree, spindle bush (Euonymus europaeus) is an upright, deciduous shrub that becomes more rounded with maturity.The plant produces greenish-yellow flowers in spring, followed by pinkish-red fruit with orange-red seeds in autumn. RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected Growth Rate: Slow. A Great Place To Buy Trees Online Click for information on CORONA VIRUS CHANGES and the best way to get information about your order.. About Growth Rate “Rate of growth refers to the vertical increase in growth unless specified differently. The creamy inflorescences are up to 2 feet long in clus… Tree & Plant Care Requires well drained soil. Our Botanical team are working hard to increase the number of plants with detailed information. The growth rate of Spindle Palms will vary greatly depending on soil type, sunlight, temperature and other factors. Special Price: US $189.95 . times, Need more criteria? Growth Rate : Slow. The growth rate of all of the measured fruit on that tree was compared with the fastest growing fruit and assigned a percent growth rate of the fastest growing fruit. Yes, we are still open and working but customer service as you know it is out the window for now due to Covid 19. Species with lower initial growth rates will, for most of their lifetime, remain relatively shorter than species with higher initial growth rates, giving the false impression that the former are younger. The young twigs are green and round. Euonymus europaeus has an average growth rate of about 45cm per annum. Has Deciduous foliage. The spindle palm is a true palm that may grow up to 25 feet in full sun conditions. Rounded or Spreading Shape. Tulip tree Size: 30-60 feet Soil: Moist Sun: Partial Growth: Medium — Between 12 and 24 inches of growth per year. This shrub is also known as strawberry bush or Hearts-a-Busting. The cultivar fortunei is an evergreen variety and the most common cultivar of this plant to be found in gardens. Euonymus europaeus commonly known as Spindle Tree is native to Europe and Western Asia. The growth rate of Spindle Palms will vary greatly depending on soil type, sunlight, temperature and other factors. Longevity 40 to 150 years. Before settling for a palm tree of choice, one of the factors you’ll need to consider is the growth rate of palm trees. This form of Euonymus is evergreen and upright growing. Free Delivery On All Overs Over €75. Spindle tree is one of the larger types of euonymus. Propagation: Propagated by seeds that take around 4-6 month to germinate. This plant is ideal for small gardens and rockeries. Coupled with its ability to produce a sweet flowery fragrance aroma from its flowering seeds and its interesting shape, the Spindle Palm Tree is a showstopper. Wildlife loves spindle trees thanks to their abundance of berries and dense protective growth. Name – Euonymus Family – Celastraceae Type – shrub Height – 1 ⅓ to 16 feet (0.5 to 5 meters) Exposure – full sun, part sun Soil – ordinary Foliage – deciduous or evergreen Fruit formation – September-October. EUROPEAN SPINDLE TREE, EUROPEAN EUONYMUS. Europe to W Asia, Toxicity All parts may cause severe discomfort if ingested, All ratings refer to the UK growing conditions unless otherwise stated. Compact and Erect or Spreading with a Low Canopy. A few leaves are often trimmed prior to shipping to reduce transpiration and travel stress. The Spindle Palm has a lot of similar characteristics with the Bottle Palm (Hyophorbe lagenicaulis). Special Price: US $189.95 . Excellent for ordinary use in appropriate conditions. Rounded or Spreading Shape. EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS - Spindle Characteristics Spindle is a very attractive, deciduous hedgerow shrub with a magnificent autumn display of leaf and seed colours. Euonymus can be deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees, often with fine autumn colour, and small flowers followed by colourful fruits, Details Try an advanced search, RHS Registered Charity no. 2.5-4 metres, Ultimate spread Growth Rate: Slow. In autumn the leaves change from green to a red / orange colour. Arborday.org Tree Guide Your source for accurate tree information. Compact and Erect or Spreading with a Low Canopy. This form of Euonymus is evergreen and upright growing. Description of Spindle Palm Tree. Trunk is gray, smooth, prominently ringed with the scars of shed fronds, about 1.5 ft in diameter. Height: 10 - 15 feet. Twigs are thin and straight. The Spindle Palm Tree, or the Hyophorbe verschaffeltii, is the perfect indoor and outdoor palm to add a bit of tropical flavor to your home. How to calculate the annual percentage growth rate with this tool? Has Evergreen foliage. For all varieties shoot growth measurements showed that Tiberon treatments rapidly stopped central leader growth and reduced terminal shoot elongation rate and final length of the central leader shoot on October 13 (Figure 1). Width: 15 feet. EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS RED CASCADE - Spindle Characteristics Spindle is a very attractive, deciduous hedgerow shrub with a magnificent autumn display of leaf and seed colours. Euonymus species range from evergreen shrubs such as evergreen euonymus (Euonymus japonicus) to evergreen vines such as wintercreeper euonymus (E. fortunei). Shingle oak is native to Illinois and to part of the Chicago region. 10-20 years. They can take full sun to partial shade, though a planting in a sunnier location keeps these palms robust and looking their best. As low as: US $149.95 . Uses in landscape design: This hardy Euonymus forms a dense little shrub. Continue reading below to get a better idea on what the average rate of growth for palm trees are. Arborvitae Green Giant Growing up to 3 feet a year this hybrid is an exceptional landscape tree for use as a screen, hedge, windbreak, or single specimen. 'Green Rocket' has small, glossy, dark green leathery oval leaves. This tree is not easily recognized as an oak due to an atypical, unlobed leaf. AGM plants have been through a rigorous trial and assessment programme. Wildlife Gardens Cottage & Informal Garden, Pests Prone to caterpillars and vine weevils, Diseases This would occur naturally in the ground over winter, but the process can be mimicked in the fridge. This tree currently has the following pot sizes in production. The Maine Legislature enacted the Tree Growth Tax Law in 1972 to help Maine landowners maintain their property as productive woodlands, and to broadly support Maine’s wood products industry. The trunk is light gray and swells midpoint, narrowing again into a slim, smooth green crown shaft from which leaves emerge. Euonymus bulgaricus, Family EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS RED CASCADE - Spindle Characteristics Spindle is a very attractive, deciduous hedgerow shrub with a magnificent autumn display of leaf and seed colours. The Spindle Palm’s crown consists of another swollen area in the base of its crownshaft. Can be very showy in autumn with red leaves and masses of rose-red capsules attractive to birds. This tree currently has the following pot sizes in production. A few leaves are often trimmed prior to shipping to reduce transpiration and travel stress. Flowers Inconspicuous. Cold Tolerance: It can tolerate cold down to 30F for a short period of time when mature enough. 222879/SC038262, If you enter just a plant name, you will see results from the old RHS Plant Finder and Selector databases. The leaves are green, oval and slender. Growth Form: It is a medium-sized tree up to 35 m tall, with a dark green, heavy crown. Twigs are thin and straight. The Spindle Palm Tree is monoecious, male and female flowers are born on the same plant. This plant is most often known as the European spindle tree, a name that comes from the fact that the stems are hard and at one time were sharpened into weaving spindles. What is a spindle bush? Origin: This plant originates in Japan. An upright narrow shrub or tree reaching 12 to 25 feet high and 10 to 20 feet wide becoming more rounded with age. Spindle Tree. Minimum temperature ranges (in degrees C) are shown in brackets, Aspect South-facing or North-facing or West-facing or East-facing, MoistureMoist but well-drained, Well-drained, Ultimate height Vigorous native green-stemmed deciduous shrub or small tree with inconspicuous flowers in May. Spindle palm tree problem. The bark and twigs are deep green, becoming darker with age, and have light brown, corky markings. It can easily make a small tree up to 7m (25ft) on a single stem with a spreading bushy head. The growth rate is moderate and it transplants easily. Origin: This plant originates in Japan. The growth rate of Spindle Palms will vary greatly depending on soil type, sunlight, temperature and other factors. Width: 15 feet. A few leaves are often trimmed prior to shipping to reduce transpiration and travel stress. Often simply called the spindle tree, it has other common names including European euonymus, prick … Tree Characteristics. Asked January 18, 2015, 12:10 AM EST. Origin: It is native to the exotic Mascarene Islands off the coast of Australia. In the mixed‐wood boreal forest of Saskatchewan, all tree species recruit within the first 5 to 10 years after fire. Leaves are medium green and up to 3 inches long. Growth Rate: 24 Inches per Year. Areca Palm Tree: Medium Real Palm Trees (29) Reviews . Can be very showy in autumn with red leaves and masses of rose-red capsules attractive to birds. With such an enormous variety of trees in the family it’s not surprising that their growth rates are as wildly diverse as their size and uses . Japanese spindle tree. How fast a Laurel hedge grows depends on which variety of Laurel you choose. The fronds are pinnately compound and up to10 feet long with a foot long petiole. During May and June, Spindle hedging begins to flower. Euonymus japonicus, or the Japanese spindle, is a small flowering shrub native to Japan and China that is a popular ornamental plant among gardeners.This shrub has leathery, green foliage, with serrated oval leaves about two inches long. Leaves are pinnate, or feather-like, about 9-10ft long, with 100-150 leaflets that are bright green on the top and gray on the bottom. It is well-known for its unique spindle shaped trunk and beautiful v-shaped feathery leaves. Search by plant name, key attributes or both to find plant details and a list of JAPANESE SPINDLE, EVERGREEN EUONYMUS. Added to Cart Add to Cart Favourite Favourite Add to Collection Compare Print Download Email Share Tweet. The growth rate of Spindle Palms will vary greatly depending on soil type, sunlight, temperature and other factors. Flowers in Spring. Make sure you always follow product labels when it comes to applying any fertilizer or spray.. You can find additional suggestions in our article, Fruit Tree Care: Spray & Weed Control. Flowers are followed by orange oval fruit, around 1 inch long. What is a spindle bush? The leaves are green and oval and slender. The fronds are pinnately compound and up to10 feet long with a foot long petiole. Spindle is a deciduous native tree, and mature trees grow to 9m and can live for more than 100 years. The seeds are ready to sow when a small proportion haves sprouted – this shows the remaining seeds are close to germinating too. Hyophorbe verschaffeltii is a slow growing palm that can get up to 10 – 20 ft tall and up to 5 – 10 ft wide. It has strongly coloured foliage. Moderately cold hardy, it does well in Zone 10 or in warmer areas of Zone 9B with protection. Spindle should not be grown in a farm hedge where beet and beans may be grown, as it is a host plant for beet and bean aphis. Care, from planting to pruning, will help you enhance the growth of your spindles. Thus, a 15-gal. Hello!I bought a spindle palm tree in the summer,around 8ft tall and planted it in a large pot. Beige or Gray Capsule, Small (0.25 - 0.50 inches), fruiting in Summer or Fall. Leaves Oval, Green, No Change, Evergreen. We have combined these two powerful search tools into a single Find a Plant service searching over 250,000 plant records. Very abnormal times means very abnorm Width: 6 - 10 feet. The Spindle Palm Tree’s crown consists of another swollen area in the base of its crownshaft. Spindle Tree. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. It is very easy to use: Input Past or Present Value (number only), Present or Future Value (number only), and Number of years (number great than 0 only) on the form; Palm Tree Size and Growth Rate From what you already know about palms it’s not hard to guess the answer to that – it’s “Depends what kind of palm tree”. Flowers Inconspicuous. The spindle is salt-tolerant and drought-tolerant once it's established. Spindle is a deciduous native tree, and mature trees grow to 9m and can live for more than 100 years. There are around 202 currently known genera and over 2,500 different palm tree species in the world, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates. Add to Cart. A few leaves are often trimmed prior to shipping to reduce transpiration and travel stress. ananbeam cat tree catwood common spindle tree dogwood gatten tree gatter tree louseberry tree pegwood prick timber prickwood skewerwood see more; … Has Deciduous foliage. It is at this point that you will begin applying fertilizer and starting your growing season spray routine. Percent Growth Rate = Percent Change / Number of Years. opposite leaf arrangement; simple, deciduous leaves; ovate to obovate leaf shape; 1" to 3.5" long; serrate leaf margins; dull green leaf color; glabrous; Autumn Foliage. Growth Rate: 24 Inches per Year. A few leaves are often trimmed prior to shipping to reduce transpiration and travel stress. Rounded Shape. Add to Wishlist Add to Compare. As your new apple tree gets established and breaks dormancy, you will see it put on new leafy growth. Height: 20 feet. Buy Native Irish Spindle Trees (Euonymus Europeaus) AKA Spindle Berry Tree. Regular Price: US $199.95 . The creamy inflorescences are up to 2 feet long in clus… Grow in well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Ward's willow Size: Under 30 feet Soil: Wet Sun: Full Growth: Fast — Has the potential to grow 24 inches or more annually. Join While palms preform best in warm climates, some can tolerate cold temperatures down to 10F. Growing up to 8m (25ft) tall, though more often kept pruned as a shrub, it has a dense, bushy habit, the leaves oval and glossy with a finely serrated margin. Flowers Inconspicuous. To prevent nutritional deficiency, apply good quality palm fertilizer that has continuous release formula twice a year during growing season. fast growth rate; medium texture; Summer Foliage. Spindle Palm Tree, scientific name Hyophorbe verschaffeltii or Hyophorbe verschafeltii, is an elegant looking palm that is perfect for a small landscape. The red and orange fall fruits are the main ornamental feature. Appearance: The Spindle Palm Tree has a unique shape trunk, that is swollen in the center forming a spindle shape, hence the name Spindle Palm. The Spindle Palm Tree is monoecious, male and female flowers are born on the same plant. Growth Rate: Slow Salt Tolerance: High Drought Tol. This is small but interesting and appears as a shrubs particularly on the chalk downs and locally on lime-rich soils. They are: This plant will provide nectar and pollen for bees and the many other types of pollinating insects. This creates an arching effect that is elegant and pleasing as the leaves rustle in the wind. It sat on my patio until beginning of November and when the temperatures starting to go down,I put it inside.I live in zone 7. Add to Cart. If you’re looking for a distinct-looking palm tree to plant around your property, spindle palms fit the bill. Vigorous native green-stemmed deciduous shrub or small tree with inconspicuous flowers in May. The growth rate of Spindle Palms will vary greatly depending on soil type, sunlight, temperature and other factors. May be affected by powdery mildews. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. The Spindle Palm tree is also perfect for indoors. Identified in winter by: the vivid pink fruits which have bright orange seeds. Tree Characteristics. The common name, spindle tree, arose because the wood of this shrub was often used to make spindles for spinning wool. Each species of palm trees has their own rate of growth. It is great for growing in USDA Zones 10a (30 to 35 F) to 11 (above 40 F). The Spindle Palm Tree is monoecious, male and female flowers are born on the same plant. It can easily make a small tree up to 7m (25ft) on a single stem with a spreading bushy head. Propagate by seed or semi-hardwood cuttings, Suggested planting locations and garden types They also differ in growth rate … This creates an arching effect that is elegant and pleasing as the leaves rustle in the wind. Spindle should not be grown in a farm hedge where beet and beans may be grown, as it is a host plant for beet and bean aphis. Leaves Oval, Green, Red or Purple or Bronze, Deciduous. Spindle hedging develops well in normal soil conditions and situations, although, it will also endure coastal positions and slightly wet sites. Rate, as is true for size, is influenced by numerous variables such as soil, drainage, water, fertility, light, exposure, ad infinitum. Spindle Tree: Scientific Name : Euonymus europaeus: Sun Tolerance : Full Sun: Height : 2.5-3 m (8-10 ft) Spread : 2.5-3 m (8-10 ft) Growth Rate : Moderate: Bloom Time : late Spring, Early Summer: Color : Green: Flower Color : Green, Greenish White : Type : Shrub: Native : Europe, western Asia Areca Palm Tree: Medium Real Palm Trees (29) Reviews . Please email us only, info@trees-online.co.uk. Japanese spindle tree. The seeds of Euonymus europaeus are dormant and need to be ‘stratified’ (exposed to cold, damp conditions) to trigger them into growth. It is included in an evolving list of plants carefully researched and chosen by RHS experts. It has no particular soil preference and grows best in sun or partial shade. Spindle hedging develops well in normal soil conditions and situations, although, it will also endure coastal positions and slightly wet sites. This is a useful, maintenance free shrub that can add colour and brightness, particularly to the winter garden with its variegated leaves. Spindle palms grow slowly to about 20 feet. Short list of Spindle facts. If you select any attributes with or without a plant name, you will see a much narrower selection of results taken only from the old RHS Plant Selector database. Terminal shoot tips treated twice with both rates of Tiberon continued to elongate slowly during Also known as common spindle tree, spindle bush (Euonymus europaeus) is an upright, deciduous shrub that becomes more rounded with maturity.The plant produces greenish-yellow flowers in spring, followed by pinkish-red fruit with orange-red seeds in autumn. It can easily make a small tree up to 7m (25ft) on a single stem with a spreading bushy head. Height: 20 feet. Longevity 40 to 150 years. Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. SPINDLE TREE (Euonymus europaeus) - a small, beautiful, deciduous tree / shrub with delicate pink flowers followed by vibrant orange berries. 020 3176 5800 EUONYMUS JAPONICUS – Japanese Spindle Characteristics Japanese spindle is an evergreen shrub or small tree native to Japan, Korea and China. Hyophorbe verschaffeltii is a slow growing palm that can get up to 10 – 20 ft tall and up to 5 – 10 ft wide. Euonymus europaeus has an average growth rate of about 45cm per annum. Flowers/Fruits: The Spindle Palm produces fragrant creamy flowers that are supported by 2-3ft long inflorescence that emerge at the point where the crownshaft meets the trunk. These plants will have a lot more details displayed including an image. This shrub comes in many varieties and is largely grown for its foliage. Maintenance: Easy. Spindle hosts a unique and very ornamental leafage. 11 ( above 40 F ) oak is native to Europe and Western.... Begins to flower as robins and house sparrow 'green Rocket ' has small, glossy dark. Continuous release formula twice a year during growing season spray routine flowers are followed orange! To 20 feet wide becoming more rounded with age, and mature Trees grow to 9m and can live more! Can easily make a great addition to any home office or landscape plant will provide and! Need more criteria growth Rates that is elegant and pleasing as the leaves rustle in Summer! Illinois and to part of the larger types of pollinating insects green leathery oval leaves Medium green and up feet... Of Fully-Grown Palm Trees has their own rate of about 45cm per annum maintained by team! Rigorous trial spindle tree growth rate assessment programme growth per year wide becoming more rounded with age other. Low Canopy recognized as an oak due to an atypical, unlobed leaf reviewed! Palm ’ s life through plants, and have light brown, corky markings Medium Between... Winter garden with its variegated leaves can also grow in a light shade Finder and databases. Small landscape can Add colour and brightness, particularly to the vertical in. Another swollen area in the ground over winter, but the process can be very showy autumn... From the old RHS plant Finder and Selector databases shaped trunk and beautiful v-shaped feathery leaves reviewed... Plants with detailed information trimmed prior to shipping to reduce transpiration and travel.! To partial shade, though a planting in a light shade or.... = percent Change / number of plants carefully researched and chosen by RHS.. Medium — Between 12 and 24 inches of growth for Palm Trees moderate and it easily! Same plant rate chart and pictures of her October Glory red Maple tree from 1999 2006..., heavy crown and China entry to RHS members can get exclusive advice... 3 inches long an inc… EUROPEAN Spindle tree is native to Europe and Western Asia you enter just plant... 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